Nowadays an old technology of dispatching services work remained at the majority of Ukrainian enterprises where motor or railway transport is used for technological transportations. Control of technological vehicles (V) is performed by dispatcher or operators in manually. This essentially complicates implementation of continuous operating control of all V movement especially at night.
Further data processing is organized in such way that transportation data, as a rule, is fixed on paper and then processed in enterprise computer center. After processing and main reports preparation data are transferred to customers with a certain time delay. Such old technology doesn’t represent on-line data about process of raw materials (production) transportation.
To solve these problems KRYVBASAKADEMINVEST developed software which allows automating processes of various technological vehicles on-line control. This software is constructed on the basis of application of modern information technologies (multitasking, network architecture, visual development tools, etc.), has friendly interface and high safety in operation.
DECISION-MAKING SUPPORT SYSTEM (DMSS) FOR AUTOMATION OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT DISPATCHING CONTROL
Important features at railway transport dispatching control is rather stable layout of unloading/unloading points (actually railway stations and stages), existence of special restrictions of access roads quantity, trains motion speed, etc. In a view of the aforesaid it is possible to solve more simply problems of vehicles movement visualization by means of special diagrams (patterns, as it is shown lower in the picture), but at the same time it is necessary to take into account listed restrictions.
Developed software is an automated system of railway vehicles dispatching control implemented on the basis of modern computing machinery and information technologies which provides on-line dispatching control of railway transport flow.
The system allows setting and storing in own database replaceable tasks, various characteristics of rolling train and indexes of all technology equipment involved in process of loads transportation (excavators, locomotives, dump cars, ‘rotators’, etc.).
Data for excavators
Data for locomotives
Offered technology allows realizing in function system layout visualization of stations, loading-unloading places, locomotives and trains.
Such stages as shift beginning and end are completely automated. In the system they are performed in a batch mode (registration of data about quantitative composition, loading places, replaceable tasks of locomotives and excavators, changes of location and crews).
Then visualization of locomotives movement from loading point to unloading one is performed on dispatcher’s monitor throughout a shift. Calculation of distances and time of train movement in the system is carried out completely automatically. At the same time, control of allowed train and locomotives idle time at stations, stages, loading-unloading points is carried out. In case of allowed idle time exceeding dispatcher is warned on the monitor and reported about idle object and its location.
During and after shift it is possible to make automatic reporting with possibility of editing, printout and data transfer within local computer network or standard means of remote access (modem, electronic mail) in the system.
The system allows making calculation and building locomotives and trains movement contact schedules in automated mode.
Data exchange with other subdivisions of the enterprise (for example, computer center, enterprise management) can be performed within corporate information network or, if it is absent, in remote access mode on the basis of modem connection.
Extra facilities of the system:
- possibility of actual data rebuild after system failure (in case of operating system hang-up, supply miss, etc.);
- possibilities of change of stations layout map.
Introduction of this automated system of railway transport dispatching control at PJSC “INGULETS IRON ORE ENRICHMENT WORKS” allowed:
- increasing productivity of railway transport work by 1-2%;
- increasing time of transport equipment efficient use due to reduction of railway transport stimulated idle times because of railway transport shop (up to 10-15%);
- reducing number of railway transport stimulated redirections that allowed decreasing cost price of raw materials transportation in terms of 1 ton of transported ore and, respectively, led to POL expense lowering.
SYSTEM FOR DISPATCHNING CONTROL AUTOMATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL MOTOR TRANSPORT
It is known that technological and other cargo transportations are typical for the majority of industrial enterprises to a greater or lesser extent. If at the same time a lot of vehicles are involved in operation, transport services dispatchers should solve different optimization problems almost constantly. For example, the most typical problem is that in conditions of vehicles stimulated idle times (failures) it is necessary to redistribute freight traffics and withstand specified replaceable indexes according to the plan.
Technological transport dispatching control is also complicated by the necessity of frequent traffic roads changes, loading-unloading points moving and existence of other industrial factors.
All listed circumstances and difficulties need using more perfect technologies for more efficient dispatcher’s work. This means first of all use of electronic digital maps, modern navigation systems and special software.
Taking into account these requirements KRYVBASACADEMINVEST has developed system of technological transport dispatching control. This system is intended for solution of visualization tasks, control and management of motor vehicles (for example, dump trucks in the open-pit, implementation of large-scale construction work, roadwork, etc.).
Depending on various event in the system (“Shift beginning”, “Shift end”, vehicle arrival to loading/unloading points), necessary information is input and certain direction of motor traffic is chosen. All vehicle movements are at once displayed in real digital area map.
System is built using client/server technology and supports multi-users mode (for example, open-pit dispatcher and several operators of vehicles redirection).
Control is performed on-line. There are a lot of possibilities for automated choice of the most optimum route, according to existent road network. This choice is possible on the basis of the following criteria use:
- criterion “productivity” – route is chosen according to calculation of transportation total volumes maximization per shift;
- criterion “quality” provides maximization of transported cargo qualitative parameters;
- criterion “distance” intended for choosing the shortest route;
- criterion “queue” realizes different restrictions for vehicles number in stimulated or technological idle times (for example, no more than 1 vehicle in loading point and no more than 1 in loading queue).
System also allows performing information recovery on-line in all users’ terminals, giving dispatcher recommendations (advice) to make optimum industrial decision, preparing reports on machine work, production sectors for objective estimation of their work.
In the system there is a connection via corporate information network with other information systems of the enterprise to receive and transmit necessary information about shift tasks, results of equipment and staff work.
Main information users in the system are: dispatching center (DC), functional departments, services and technical control departments (TCD), transport workshops, other engineering services of the enterprise. Dispatching center (DC) represents information about actual condition of all vehicles, actual vehicles location in the area, volumes of transported raw materials, their planned and real quality. Functional and technical control departments (TCD) need information about volumes of extracted and transported raw materials, their quality. Transport workshops receive from dispatcher data about volumes of transported cargo as well as statistics about on-line exploitation of equipment and vehicles that is necessary for idle time analysis.
Important peculiarity of this system is use of special developed back-off technology. This technology allows performing smooth recovery of initial data in case of incidents (electric power miss, OS stick and unskilled work of staff).
It is necessary to notice that the most efficient work of the system will be provided if vehicles are equipped with location sensors like GPS, sensors of fuel consumption, loading and possible transmission of on-line data.
Calculations have shown that introduction of automated system of technological vehicles on-line dispatching control by the example of iron ore enrichment works open-pit allows:
- decreasing transport idle times (up to 20%) at the expense of criterion “queue” application;
- increasing productivity of vehicles work at the expense of increase of transport equipment use time (up to 0,5-0,6%);
- reducing haulage in calculation of 1 ton transported raw materials up to 0,02-0,025 km at the expense of operational definition of optimum vehicle routes.
Thus, our development and exploitation experience of automated systems of technological transport dispatching control shows that such developments are quite modern solutions in this field and they lead to increase of transport departments work efficiency within industrial enterprises.
V. Nazarenko, professor, Doctor of Science,
member of International Academy of Computer Science and Systems
On-line Automation of Technological Transport Dispatching Control
World of Technique and Technologies. – No.9. – 2003.